Herod


Herod
The Greek name of an Idumean dynasty whose members governed Palestine for a century and a half, which included the NT era. Herod the Great (40 to 4 BCE), son of Antipater, was married to Mariamne Ⅰ, a Hasmonean [[➝ Hasmoneans]]. Herod was a friend of the Romans and from 37 BCE, when he seized Jerusalem from Antigonus Ⅱ, he was their king, though under Roman suzerainty. He was responsible for important building projects—Caesarea on the coast, the fortress-prisons of Masada and Machaerus, and the vast new (strictly, reconstructed) Temple, which was to occupy a quarter of the entire area of Jerusalem, begun in 20 BCE and eventually completed in 62 CE, only to be destroyed in 70 CE. Herod ordered the execution of any potential rivals to his throne, including his wife Mariamne and their two sons. Such cruelty is the plausible background for the story in Matt. 2:16–17 of the massacre of the infants of Bethlehem after the birth of Jesus; but the historicity of the event is doubtful. If he had a reason to suspect that a child in Bethlehem might become a messianic leader, Herod could have engaged a contract killer. A massacre of such notoriety would certainly have demanded mention by Josephus [[➝ Josephus, Flavius]], who is silent on the subject.
In 4 BCE Caesar Augustus divided the kingdom (but denied the title of king) to three surviving sons:
1) Archelaus as ethnarch was given Judaea, Idumaea, and Samaria; he died in 6 CE.
2) Herod Antipas had Galilee and Perea.
3) Philip (whose mother was Cleopatra) had Batanea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis; he built Caesarea Philippi (Mark 8:27); he married Salome, daughter of Herodias and of Philip's half-brother Herod Antipas, and died in 34 CE.
Herod Antipas is described as a ‘fox’ (Luke 13:31–2); his marriage to Herodias was criticized by John the Baptist, who was then executed at Machaerus (Mark 6:14–29). His capital city was Tiberias where the coins were stamped with a reed (Matt. 11:7). Deprived of his territory by Rome, he went into exile and died in 39 CE. He was succeeded by Herod Agrippa Ⅰ, his nephew, who ruled from 41 to 44 CE with much approval from the Pharisees. He died suddenly (Acts 12:20–3). His son, Herod Agrippa Ⅱ, too young in 44 CE, was given territory in 50 CE, augmented in 53 CE. He renamed his capital (Caesarea Philippi) Neronia in honour of the emperor. He lived incestuously with his sister Bernice (Acts 25:13–26:32). During the Jewish revolt of 66–70 CE, he took the side of Rome, and died there in 93 CE.

Dictionary of the Bible.

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  • HEROD I — (73?–4 B.C.E.), king of Judea from 37 B.C.E. until his death. Herod was the second son of the idumean antipater and cypros . Nothing is known of his youth, but it is clear that he began the struggle for power early in life. In 47 B.C.E. he was… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Herod — • Herod was the name of many rulers mentioned in the N.T. and in history. It was known long before the time of the biblical Herods Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Herod     Herod   …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Herod — was the name used by several kings belonging to the Herodian Dynasty of Roman Iudaea Province:* Herod the Great (c. 74 4 BC), king of Judea who reconstructed the Second Temple in Jerusalem and was described in the Gospel of Matthew as ordering… …   Wikipedia

  • HEROD — (late first century B.C.E.), son of herod the Great and Mariamne, daughter of simeon b. boethus . Implicated in the conspiracy of his half brother antipater , against his father (5 B.C.E.), Herod was cut off from his father s will and forfeited… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • HEROD II — (d. 48 C.E.), grandson of herod the Great and Mariamne the Hasmonean; son of Aristobulus and brother of agrippa i ; king of Chalcis 41–48 C.E. The emperor Claudius granted Herod the kingdom of chalcis in the Lebanon in 41 C.E. In 45 C.E. he and… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Herod — (né le 12 mai 1758, mort en 1780) était une cheval de course pur sang anglais qui eut une grande influence sur la race et est considéré comme l un des 4 étalons du XVIII° siècle à l origine de la race telle qu on la connait aujourd hui, avec… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Herod — [her′əd] [L Herodes < Gr Hērōdēs] 73? 4 B.C.; Idumaean king of Judea (37 4): called Herod the Great …   English World dictionary

  • Herod — Hèrod, Vȅlikī (o.72 4. pr. Kr.) DEFINICIJA pov. bibl. židovski kralj Galileje i Judeje od 37. do 4. pr. Kr.; rimski vazal, tiranin; prema Novom zavjetu naredio pokolj djece u Betlehemu iz straha od Isusova rođenja …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Herod — /her euhd/, n. ( the Great ) 73? 4 B.C., king of Judea 37 4. * * * I known as Herod the Great born 73 BC died March/April, 4 BC, Jericho, Judaea Roman appointed king of Judaea (37–4 BC). A practicing Jew, he was of Arab origin. He was critical to …   Universalium

  • Herod — Her|od 1.) Herod the Great (74 4 BC) the king of Judea at the time when Jesus Christ was born. according to the New Testament of the Bible, he ordered that all the male babies in Bethlehem should be killed because he wanted to kill the baby who… …   Dictionary of contemporary English


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